Concrete slabs are big size flat concrete goods, that are used in the building structure or during the installation of infrastructure facilities. Their use allows obtaining reliable and long-life structure, able to withstand large mechanical loads, not losing their quality characteristics.
Purpose of Concrete Slabs
In industrial engineering and private construction of buildings, they fulfil carrying or fencing functions. They are used as floor slab panels and during the roof installation. The strength and reliability of slabs provide the resistibility of building and create sound insulation.
Besides the construction of buildings the concrete slabs are used in many other construction works:
- tunnel construction;
- road paving (paving slabs);
- laying the groundwork for heavy construction machinery of large dimensions;
- construction of parapets;
- service tunnels;
- construction of foundation or pedestal carriage;
- installation of stair flights.
Advantages of Concrete Slabs
Concrete slabs are building semi-finished goods that allow facilitating and forcing the process of construction. The material and manufacturing technology of slabs provides them with undoubtful advantages:
- moisture resistance;
- fire resistance;
- high strength;
- mechanical stability;
- long operating life.
When used in the construction, there are additional advantages:
- heat salvage;
- sound insulation.
When the structure is installed using the concrete slabs, its surface is straight and smooth. That is why finishing materials will be applied thereon easy.
Production of Concrete Slab
Concrete slab production techniques depend on the type of item, and, as a rule, consist of several operations, being carried out in a certain sequence:
- Preparation of forms, including surface cleaning and greasing.
- Manufacturing of reinforced frame and its placement into a form.
- Preparation of concrete mixture.
- Pouring and vibration.
- Thermal treatment.
- Cutting reinforcing rods.
- Removal of possible defects and item surface finishing.
While mortar is drying, an item is getting the required strength. Thereafter, the ready slab is taken out of the form. If required, its surface is finished and it can be used immediately according to its intended purpose.
Types and Classification
Concrete slabs are usually classified by a few distinguishing features:
- According to the concrete mix proportion.
- According to the type of reinforced frame.
- By the type of construction.
- For its intended purpose.
Choosing an item for construction, firs of all, define a type of a slab construction:
- Solid slabs have maximum carrying ability and are used during the construction of heat pipelines and building with a solid frame.
- Beam-and-slab floor is distinguished by the raised longitudinal members (ribs), increasing the carrying ability. The field of application of such slabs depends on the concrete mix proportion and reinforcement. They are used in the construction of industrial and administrative premises, in the roof installation, receiving large loads.
- Hollow core slabs are manufactured with holes of various diameters. Their quantity in one product can be different. They are the lightest in weight. At the same time, they have high strength and insulation parameters. This type of slabs is considered to be universal, allowing to carry out roof installation of any size.
Every type has its peculiarities and specifications. It is required to choose an item for construction considering the load intensity that will be received by the slab.